Integral City Map 2: Nested Holarchy of City Systems
The city as a human system is a nest of systems made up of centers (Alexander, 2004), holons (Koestler) or nested holons (Sahtouris, 1999). The systems have orders of complexity (as discussed above), so that the holons, wholes and centers are nested into holarchies (Wilber, 1996c) or panarchies (Gunderson & Holling, 2002) where levels of complexity (and scale) emerge over time.
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